This paper estimates the size of underground economic activity in Indonesia. Underground economy covers market production of goods and services, legal and illegal, which are sold or purchased illegally. Using monetary approach, this paper concludes the average size of the underground economy in Indonesia during 2001-2013 was 8.33 percent of GDP. Consequently, the average size of potential tax loss was Rp. 11,172.86 billion or about one percent of GDP.
Samuda, Sri Juli Asdiyanti
"UNDERGROUND ECONOMY IN INDONESIA,"
Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking: Vol. 19:
1, Article 4.
Available at: https://bulletin.bmeb-bi.org/bmeb/vol19/iss1/4